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These terms refer to the body in the anatomical position—standing erect, facing forward, arms down at the side, with the palms turned forward. In this position, the following apply:. Removing book from your Reading List will also remove any bookmarked pages associated with this title.


  • What Is Anatomy and Physiology?!
  • Category:Human physiology - Wikipedia!
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Are you sure you want to remove bookConfirmation and any corresponding bookmarks? Sign In. What Is Anatomy and Physiology? Adam Bede has been added to your Reading List! Organelles are found in the cytoplasm of the cell. The cytoskeleton, similar to the skeletal system of the body, is made of protein and it maintains the shape and form of the cell so that it does not collapse as parts of the cell move about and the cell itself moves about. The nucleus of the cell, as found in eurkaryotic cells, is the informational depository of the cell.

The nucleus is the place that contains chromosomes and the place where both DNA and RNA are synthesized and replicated. Organelles, which the word connotes are "mini organs" that perform a specific role in the cell. Organelles include cellular structures like the Golgi apparatus and the mitochondria, among other things, which are in the cytosol of the cell. The mitochondria, as shown in the picture below, produce and store energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate ATP with a complex cycle of production known as the Krebs's cycle.

Two mitochondria from mammalian lung tissue displaying their matrix and membranes as shown by electron microscopy. The lysosomes, simply stated, break down and dispose of cellular wastes. Quite simplified, the lysosomes are garbage recyclers and garbage disposal systems for the cells.

Endoplasmic reticulum connects the nucleus of the cell to the cell's cytoplasm. These smooth and rough tubes and the ribosomes within play a role in the synthesis or manufacture of protein and lipids. Quite simplified, the endoplasmic reticulum can be looked at as the manufacturing plants of the cells.

The Golgi apparatus connects to the endoplasmic reticulum and it gets lipids and proteins from it. The Golgi apparatus processes these products and readies them for transport to other areas of the cell, as needed. Quite simplified, the Golgi apparatus can be viewed as the storage room for processed products. In addition to the functions and processes of the different parts of the human cell, cells also perform other processes that you should be familiar with.

Passive transport is the movement of molecules across membranes that does NOT require the use of cellular energy to perform this transport.

Diffusion and osmosis are two forms of passive transport. Active transport is the movement of molecules that does require the use of cellular energy to perform this transport. Diffusion is a type of passive transport that does NOT require the use of cellular energy to move molecules, other than water molecules, from an area of higher concentration to the area of lesser concentration.

Osmosis is a type of passive transport that does NOT require the use of cellular energy to move water and solute particles with the stored energy found in the cell's active transport proteins. In meiosis, the chromosome or chromosomes duplicate during interphase and homologous chromosomes exchange genetic information chromosomal crossover during the first division, called meiosis I.

The daughter cells divide again in meiosis II, splitting up sister chromatids to form haploid gametes. Two gametes fuse during fertilization, creating a diploid cell with a complete set of paired chromosomes. Meiosis and mitosis are two forms of cell division. When meiosis occurs, the parent or origin cell, half of the original number of chromosomes result.

Human cells have 23 types of chromosomes and each has its own set of genetic material. Mitosis, a form of asexual replication, occurs when the nucleus of the cell replicates itself into two identical copies of itself. In other words, genetic twins result from mitosis. Identical genetic information as the parent cells Tissues of the Body Tissues are a collection or group of cells with similar structures that join to form a tissue with a distinct purpose and function.

Your body’s control Systems - Physiology

Cells collect to form tissues and tissues collect to form organs. These different types of epithelial tissue can have one layer or they can be stratified and have multiple layers. Epithelial tissues form all glands and they play an important role and function in the body in terms of sensations, in terms of the protection of underlying structures and organs, in terms of secretion, and in terms of absorption.

It covers the entire body in the skin and it also lines the inner surfaces of organs as well as the circulatory system vessels. The lifespan of epithelial tissue is relatively short when compared to other types of tissues, but epithelial tissue is readily replaced with mitosis cell division, as discussed above.


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The type of tissue that is surrounded with what is called its matrix, as shown in the picture below:. Section of epididymis. Connective tissue blue is seen supporting the epithelium purple. Connective tissue also has different types, as based on the matrix that surrounds its cells such as:. Fat, which is called adipose tissue, is an example of loose connective tissue.

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Dense connective tissue lies in a matrix of strong collagen fibers. What's the difference between anatomy and physiology? MLA Newman, Tim. MediLexicon, Intl. APA Newman, T. MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media. Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional. Privacy Terms Ad policy Careers.

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Human Physiology/Physiology Introduction - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Table of contents What is physiology? History Biological systems Branches Physiology or anatomy? Fast facts on physiology Here are some key points about physiology. Physiology can be considered a study of the functions and processes that create life.

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The study of physiology can be traced back to at least BC. The study of physiology is split into many disciplines covering topics as different as exercise, evolution, and defense. Physiology covers a multitude of disciplines within human biology and beyond. Hippocrates is considered by many to be the "father of medicine. Defense physiology investigates nature's natural defensive reactions.

Anatomy: A brief introduction. Related coverage.